EC tarafından Küme 5 Çalışma Programındaki Çağrılara İlişkin Yapılan Açıklamalar- Enerji Çağrı Başlıkları
Bilindiği üzere, paydaşlar ve Ulusal İrtibat Noktaları tarafından Avrupa Komisyonu'na iletilen sorular ve cevaplarına ilişkin Ufuk Avrupa sitesinde bir sayfa oluşturulmuştur.
Halihazırda Komisyon tarafından son dönemde, enerji alanı özelindeki 6 çağrı başlığına ilişkin çok sayıda soru-cevap iletilmiş olup detayları ise aşağıda bilgilerinize sunulmaktadır.
İlgilendiğiniz çağrı başlığı kapsamında bir sorunuz bulunması halinde bizlere email@example.com adresinden ulaşabilirsiniz.
Question: Are projects expected to improve the state-of-the-art for deep geothermal resources extraction or is it sufficient to consider those resources as available?
- Reply: The topic does not specifically request advances in the extraction of deep geothermal resources, therefore, unless they are necessary to meet the other requirements, the proposals do not necessarily have to include them.
Question: What is expected to be compulsorily addressed precisely among: heat pump systems / energy piles / energy sheet pile walls / alternative cycle working media?
- Reply:Projects should include (one or more of the following three technologies): heat pump systems, energy piles and energy sheet pile walls. The inclusion of alternative cycle working media is not mandatory but its exclusion from the proposals should be properly justified.
Question : Must harvesting of geothermal energy be part of the project or is it enough with the use of the heat pump in industry?
- Reply:[…] position geothermal utilisation (including underground storage) as a crucial pillar for the (heat and/or cold) transition of industrial energy systems […] suggests that the use of a heat pump in industry alone does not fulfil the requirements of the topic.
Question In case harvesting of geothermal energy must be part of the project, are the costs of geotechnical surveys and the drilling of geothermal wells eligible?
- Reply: The topic does not exclude the costs of geotechnical surveys and the drilling of geothermal wells eligible, however these should be appropriately justified in the context of the topic.
Question: The topic mentions: “Projects should consider the application of cascading residual geothermal waste heat to neighbouring industries or the built environment”. The indicative budget per project (3 M€) does not seem enough to include a district heating for neighbouring industries. Do proposals have to make a district heating or is it enough to simulate this cascading of residual geothermal waste heat?
- Reply: Given the final expected TRL, the use of an experimental set-up to simulate the behavior of a downstream waste heat application is acceptable to demonstrate the cascading effect in a relevant environment.
Question: What does “direct utilization of renewable energy sources” mean?
- Reply:The renewable energy source is converted into use (heat, cooling, fuels, work) without intermediaries being carried to the use. In that respect, electricity could be produced in the case of a direct use integrated into a product or a process.
Question: Should the renewable energy source be spent without converting it to electricity before its final use?
- Reply:Electricity can be produced if its use is integrated within the process that needs it. What is excluded as an example is producing electricity to feed an electrolyser to produce a fuel. However, using renewable energy to directly produce fuels through electrochemical process would be ok.
Question: Could you please give examples of “direct utilization of renewable energy sources”? If possible, one with “wind”.
- Reply:Examples are imbedded power generation to processes or products. For wind, an idea could be revisiting the concept of wind energy to power mechanical devices.
Question: Is the production of ammonia through the electrolysis of water with simultaneous reaction with nitrogen within the scope, even if hydrogen is produced as a by-product, as a one-step process in which ammonia and hydrogen are produced simultaneously (the focus being on the production of ammonia)?
- Reply:Indeed only hydrogen through electrolyser is excluded. However, it should be reminded that the scope of the topic is “to address high-risk/high return technology developments for game changing renewable energy technologies.”. Developing electrolysers that can be operated with electricity from any origin is not a game changing renewable energy technology as such. However solutions like “direct utilization of renewable energy sources” through electrochemical process would be in scope. Kindly note that topic HORIZON-CL5-2024-D2-01-04: Emerging energy technologies for a climate neutral Europe addresses “Novel energy generation/conversion methods” that would cover electrolyser development.
Question: Is the “intermediate energy carriers” mentioned in the text include “intermediates” that are final products and that may be used as fuel without further purification/processing?
- Reply:The call specifies that: the finished quality is expected to be suitable so that the intermediates can be either directly upgraded in existing refinery infrastructures and/or further purified and processed in existing chemical infrastructures to drop-in liquid and gaseous advanced biofuels and synthetic renewable fuels, or directly used for shipping propulsion or in other off-road transport. The final products are the intermediates and not the upgraded fuels. Some direct uses like off-road transport or shipping are possible as these may handle intermediates.
Question: Are jet-fuel are acceptable?
- Reply:Jet fuels are not acceptable
Question: Is the aviation sector included as a target of this topic? In other words, how should the expression “off-road transport” be interpreted?
- Reply:The call specifies that the finished quality is expected to be suitable so that the intermediates can be either directly upgraded in existing refinery infrastructures and/or further purified and processed in existing chemical infrastructures to drop-in liquid and gaseous advanced biofuels and synthetic renewable fuels, or directly used for shipping propulsion or in other off-road transport. The final products are the intermediates and not the upgraded fuels. Some direct uses like off-road transport (as for example in agricultural machinery) or shipping are possible as these may handle intermediates. Final aviation renewable fuels are not acceptable, intermediates that can be converted to final aviation renewable fuels are eligible. Examples of intermediates are provided in the text of the topic.
Question: Is it in scope to investigate other sources of CO2 in addition to biogenic sources?
- Reply:CO2 can be of any origin, as it does not carry energy
Question: Is in the scope of the topic to investigate new feedstock sources for refineries?
- Reply: The scope of the topic is described in the call. The aim is to upgrade the intermediates.
Question: Is it mandatory to make a demonstration at regional level?
- Reply:Yes, it is mandatory to make a demonstration at regional level
Question: Given that a pilot is always in a concrete “local” site, how is the project expected to cover the “regional level”?
- Reply: The request refers to the part “Demonstrate aggregation of multiple (building or industrial) energy management systems to provide flexibility services (wholesale market price signals, demand response, flexible production, smart charging, balancing & frequency services, congestion management) to the electricity network.” The aim is to demonstrate at regional level how different local level pilots can work together, for example how the EMS of different buildings or industrial sites can work together. This can be regional within an Member State or across borders.
Question: Can we consider a heat pump producer as a home appliances producer and what exactly is the definition of an aggregator?
- Reply:Yes, a heat pump producer can be considered as a home appliances producer. The definition of an aggregator follows the description figuring in the EU electricity directive: ‘aggregation’ means a function performed by a natural or legal person who combines multiple customer loads or generated electricity for sale, purchase or auction in any electricity market; ‘independent aggregator’ means a market participant engaged in aggregation who is not affiliated to the customer's supplier.
Question: The text contains several occurrences of the words ‘include’, ‘involve’ or ‘cooperate with’. Can you please clarify what is expected from these actions?
- Reply: ‘Include’ requires entities to be part of the project as partners, while ‘involve’ and ‘cooperate with’ means that the cooperation/involvement does not require them to be project partners (though it is welcome to have them as partners). It is left to the consortium to assess the most appropriate configuration.
Question: What does the term "energy system management service company" precisely refers to?
- Reply: It is meant: ‘companies that provide EMS (energy management system) systems including hardware and software for industries and/or buildings’.
Question: The expected outcome is "Demonstration of Condition and Health Monitoring (C&HM) for converters of wind turbines generators and HVDC converter stations or MVDC converters (solar energy)”. Should only one form of energy generation - either wind or solar - be addressed in an application?
- Reply:The R&I topic does not address the type of energy generation, but C&HM for the PE to it associated, whatever the type of generation might be. For wind energy, we refer to the converter of the wind generator and the HVDC converter station while for PV the PE equipment involved is the MVDC. Therefore, the type of generation not being explicitly requested in the call, the proposer is free to address the PE equipment linked to wind, PV or both.
Question:The topic mentions that “Solutions should deliver innovative hydropower technologies adapted to unconventional storage schemes, including e.g. low-head locations”. At what altitude the Commission considers that we are facing low-head location?
- Reply:Head refers to the change in the water levels between hydro intake and discharge point. Altitude is not prescribed in the topic.